xref: /openssh-portable/ssh-add.1 (revision c7670b09)
1.\"	$OpenBSD: ssh-add.1,v 1.69 2019/01/21 12:53:35 djm Exp $
2.\"
3.\" Author: Tatu Ylonen <ylo@cs.hut.fi>
4.\" Copyright (c) 1995 Tatu Ylonen <ylo@cs.hut.fi>, Espoo, Finland
5.\"                    All rights reserved
6.\"
7.\" As far as I am concerned, the code I have written for this software
8.\" can be used freely for any purpose.  Any derived versions of this
9.\" software must be clearly marked as such, and if the derived work is
10.\" incompatible with the protocol description in the RFC file, it must be
11.\" called by a name other than "ssh" or "Secure Shell".
12.\"
13.\"
14.\" Copyright (c) 1999,2000 Markus Friedl.  All rights reserved.
15.\" Copyright (c) 1999 Aaron Campbell.  All rights reserved.
16.\" Copyright (c) 1999 Theo de Raadt.  All rights reserved.
17.\"
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19.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
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38.Dd $Mdocdate: January 21 2019 $
39.Dt SSH-ADD 1
40.Os
41.Sh NAME
42.Nm ssh-add
43.Nd adds private key identities to the authentication agent
44.Sh SYNOPSIS
45.Nm ssh-add
46.Op Fl cDdkLlqvXx
47.Op Fl E Ar fingerprint_hash
48.Op Fl t Ar life
49.Op Ar
50.Nm ssh-add
51.Fl s Ar pkcs11
52.Nm ssh-add
53.Fl e Ar pkcs11
54.Nm ssh-add
55.Fl T
56.Ar pubkey ...
57.Sh DESCRIPTION
58.Nm
59adds private key identities to the authentication agent,
60.Xr ssh-agent 1 .
61When run without arguments, it adds the files
62.Pa ~/.ssh/id_rsa ,
63.Pa ~/.ssh/id_dsa ,
64.Pa ~/.ssh/id_ecdsa ,
65and
66.Pa ~/.ssh/id_ed25519 .
67After loading a private key,
68.Nm
69will try to load corresponding certificate information from the
70filename obtained by appending
71.Pa -cert.pub
72to the name of the private key file.
73Alternative file names can be given on the command line.
74.Pp
75If any file requires a passphrase,
76.Nm
77asks for the passphrase from the user.
78The passphrase is read from the user's tty.
79.Nm
80retries the last passphrase if multiple identity files are given.
81.Pp
82The authentication agent must be running and the
83.Ev SSH_AUTH_SOCK
84environment variable must contain the name of its socket for
85.Nm
86to work.
87.Pp
88The options are as follows:
89.Bl -tag -width Ds
90.It Fl c
91Indicates that added identities should be subject to confirmation before
92being used for authentication.
93Confirmation is performed by
94.Xr ssh-askpass 1 .
95Successful confirmation is signaled by a zero exit status from
96.Xr ssh-askpass 1 ,
97rather than text entered into the requester.
98.It Fl D
99Deletes all identities from the agent.
100.It Fl d
101Instead of adding identities, removes identities from the agent.
102If
103.Nm
104has been run without arguments, the keys for the default identities and
105their corresponding certificates will be removed.
106Otherwise, the argument list will be interpreted as a list of paths to
107public key files to specify keys and certificates to be removed from the agent.
108If no public key is found at a given path,
109.Nm
110will append
111.Pa .pub
112and retry.
113.It Fl E Ar fingerprint_hash
114Specifies the hash algorithm used when displaying key fingerprints.
115Valid options are:
116.Dq md5
117and
118.Dq sha256 .
119The default is
120.Dq sha256 .
121.It Fl e Ar pkcs11
122Remove keys provided by the PKCS#11 shared library
123.Ar pkcs11 .
124.It Fl k
125When loading keys into or deleting keys from the agent, process plain private
126keys only and skip certificates.
127.It Fl L
128Lists public key parameters of all identities currently represented
129by the agent.
130.It Fl l
131Lists fingerprints of all identities currently represented by the agent.
132.It Fl q
133Be quiet after a successful operation.
134.It Fl s Ar pkcs11
135Add keys provided by the PKCS#11 shared library
136.Ar pkcs11 .
137.It Fl T Ar pubkey ...
138Tests whether the private keys that correspond to the specified
139.Ar pubkey
140files are usable by performing sign and verify operations on each.
141.It Fl t Ar life
142Set a maximum lifetime when adding identities to an agent.
143The lifetime may be specified in seconds or in a time format
144specified in
145.Xr sshd_config 5 .
146.It Fl v
147Verbose mode.
148Causes
149.Nm
150to print debugging messages about its progress.
151This is helpful in debugging problems.
152Multiple
153.Fl v
154options increase the verbosity.
155The maximum is 3.
156.It Fl X
157Unlock the agent.
158.It Fl x
159Lock the agent with a password.
160.El
161.Sh ENVIRONMENT
162.Bl -tag -width Ds
163.It Ev "DISPLAY" and "SSH_ASKPASS"
164If
165.Nm
166needs a passphrase, it will read the passphrase from the current
167terminal if it was run from a terminal.
168If
169.Nm
170does not have a terminal associated with it but
171.Ev DISPLAY
172and
173.Ev SSH_ASKPASS
174are set, it will execute the program specified by
175.Ev SSH_ASKPASS
176(by default
177.Dq ssh-askpass )
178and open an X11 window to read the passphrase.
179This is particularly useful when calling
180.Nm
181from a
182.Pa .xsession
183or related script.
184(Note that on some machines it
185may be necessary to redirect the input from
186.Pa /dev/null
187to make this work.)
188.It Ev SSH_AUTH_SOCK
189Identifies the path of a
190.Ux Ns -domain
191socket used to communicate with the agent.
192.El
193.Sh FILES
194.Bl -tag -width Ds
195.It Pa ~/.ssh/id_dsa
196Contains the DSA authentication identity of the user.
197.It Pa ~/.ssh/id_ecdsa
198Contains the ECDSA authentication identity of the user.
199.It Pa ~/.ssh/id_ed25519
200Contains the Ed25519 authentication identity of the user.
201.It Pa ~/.ssh/id_rsa
202Contains the RSA authentication identity of the user.
203.El
204.Pp
205Identity files should not be readable by anyone but the user.
206Note that
207.Nm
208ignores identity files if they are accessible by others.
209.Sh EXIT STATUS
210Exit status is 0 on success, 1 if the specified command fails,
211and 2 if
212.Nm
213is unable to contact the authentication agent.
214.Sh SEE ALSO
215.Xr ssh 1 ,
216.Xr ssh-agent 1 ,
217.Xr ssh-askpass 1 ,
218.Xr ssh-keygen 1 ,
219.Xr sshd 8
220.Sh AUTHORS
221OpenSSH is a derivative of the original and free
222ssh 1.2.12 release by Tatu Ylonen.
223Aaron Campbell, Bob Beck, Markus Friedl, Niels Provos,
224Theo de Raadt and Dug Song
225removed many bugs, re-added newer features and
226created OpenSSH.
227Markus Friedl contributed the support for SSH
228protocol versions 1.5 and 2.0.
229