xref: /illumos-kvm-cmd/qemu-options.hx (revision 68396ea9)
1HXCOMM Use DEFHEADING() to define headings in both help text and texi
2HXCOMM Text between STEXI and ETEXI are copied to texi version and
3HXCOMM discarded from C version
4HXCOMM DEF(option, HAS_ARG/0, opt_enum, opt_help, arch_mask) is used to
5HXCOMM construct option structures, enums and help message for specified
6HXCOMM architectures.
7HXCOMM HXCOMM can be used for comments, discarded from both texi and C
8
9DEFHEADING(Standard options:)
10STEXI
11@table @option
12ETEXI
13
14DEF("help", 0, QEMU_OPTION_h,
15    "-h or -help     display this help and exit\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
16STEXI
17@item -h
18@findex -h
19Display help and exit
20ETEXI
21
22DEF("version", 0, QEMU_OPTION_version,
23    "-version        display version information and exit\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
24STEXI
25@item -version
26@findex -version
27Display version information and exit
28ETEXI
29
30DEF("M", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_M,
31    "-M machine      select emulated machine (-M ? for list)\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
32STEXI
33@item -M @var{machine}
34@findex -M
35Select the emulated @var{machine} (@code{-M ?} for list)
36ETEXI
37
38DEF("cpu", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_cpu,
39    "-cpu cpu        select CPU (-cpu ? for list)\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
40STEXI
41@item -cpu @var{model}
42@findex -cpu
43Select CPU model (-cpu ? for list and additional feature selection)
44ETEXI
45
46DEF("smp", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_smp,
47    "-smp n[,maxcpus=cpus][,cores=cores][,threads=threads][,sockets=sockets]\n"
48    "                set the number of CPUs to 'n' [default=1]\n"
49    "                maxcpus= maximum number of total cpus, including\n"
50    "                offline CPUs for hotplug, etc\n"
51    "                cores= number of CPU cores on one socket\n"
52    "                threads= number of threads on one CPU core\n"
53    "                sockets= number of discrete sockets in the system\n",
54        QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
55STEXI
56@item -smp @var{n}[,cores=@var{cores}][,threads=@var{threads}][,sockets=@var{sockets}][,maxcpus=@var{maxcpus}]
57@findex -smp
58Simulate an SMP system with @var{n} CPUs. On the PC target, up to 255
59CPUs are supported. On Sparc32 target, Linux limits the number of usable CPUs
60to 4.
61For the PC target, the number of @var{cores} per socket, the number
62of @var{threads} per cores and the total number of @var{sockets} can be
63specified. Missing values will be computed. If any on the three values is
64given, the total number of CPUs @var{n} can be omitted. @var{maxcpus}
65specifies the maximum number of hotpluggable CPUs.
66ETEXI
67
68DEF("numa", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_numa,
69    "-numa node[,mem=size][,cpus=cpu[-cpu]][,nodeid=node]\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
70STEXI
71@item -numa @var{opts}
72@findex -numa
73Simulate a multi node NUMA system. If mem and cpus are omitted, resources
74are split equally.
75ETEXI
76
77DEF("fda", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_fda,
78    "-fda/-fdb file  use 'file' as floppy disk 0/1 image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
79DEF("fdb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_fdb, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
80STEXI
81@item -fda @var{file}
82@item -fdb @var{file}
83@findex -fda
84@findex -fdb
85Use @var{file} as floppy disk 0/1 image (@pxref{disk_images}). You can
86use the host floppy by using @file{/dev/fd0} as filename (@pxref{host_drives}).
87ETEXI
88
89DEF("hda", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hda,
90    "-hda/-hdb file  use 'file' as IDE hard disk 0/1 image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
91DEF("hdb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hdb, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
92DEF("hdc", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hdc,
93    "-hdc/-hdd file  use 'file' as IDE hard disk 2/3 image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
94DEF("hdd", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hdd, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
95STEXI
96@item -hda @var{file}
97@item -hdb @var{file}
98@item -hdc @var{file}
99@item -hdd @var{file}
100@findex -hda
101@findex -hdb
102@findex -hdc
103@findex -hdd
104Use @var{file} as hard disk 0, 1, 2 or 3 image (@pxref{disk_images}).
105ETEXI
106
107DEF("cdrom", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_cdrom,
108    "-cdrom file     use 'file' as IDE cdrom image (cdrom is ide1 master)\n",
109    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
110STEXI
111@item -cdrom @var{file}
112@findex -cdrom
113Use @var{file} as CD-ROM image (you cannot use @option{-hdc} and
114@option{-cdrom} at the same time). You can use the host CD-ROM by
115using @file{/dev/cdrom} as filename (@pxref{host_drives}).
116ETEXI
117
118DEF("drive", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_drive,
119    "-drive [file=file][,if=type][,bus=n][,unit=m][,media=d][,index=i]\n"
120    "       [,cyls=c,heads=h,secs=s[,trans=t]][,snapshot=on|off]\n"
121    "       [,cache=writethrough|writeback|none|unsafe][,format=f]\n"
122    "       [,serial=s][,addr=A][,id=name][,aio=threads|native]\n"
123    "       [,readonly=on|off][,boot=on|off]\n"
124    "                use 'file' as a drive image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
125STEXI
126@item -drive @var{option}[,@var{option}[,@var{option}[,...]]]
127@findex -drive
128
129Define a new drive. Valid options are:
130
131@table @option
132@item file=@var{file}
133This option defines which disk image (@pxref{disk_images}) to use with
134this drive. If the filename contains comma, you must double it
135(for instance, "file=my,,file" to use file "my,file").
136@item if=@var{interface}
137This option defines on which type on interface the drive is connected.
138Available types are: ide, scsi, sd, mtd, floppy, pflash, virtio.
139@item bus=@var{bus},unit=@var{unit}
140These options define where is connected the drive by defining the bus number and
141the unit id.
142@item index=@var{index}
143This option defines where is connected the drive by using an index in the list
144of available connectors of a given interface type.
145@item media=@var{media}
146This option defines the type of the media: disk or cdrom.
147@item cyls=@var{c},heads=@var{h},secs=@var{s}[,trans=@var{t}]
148These options have the same definition as they have in @option{-hdachs}.
149@item snapshot=@var{snapshot}
150@var{snapshot} is "on" or "off" and allows to enable snapshot for given drive (see @option{-snapshot}).
151@item cache=@var{cache}
152@var{cache} is "none", "writeback", "unsafe", or "writethrough" and controls how the host cache is used to access block data.
153@item aio=@var{aio}
154@var{aio} is "threads", or "native" and selects between pthread based disk I/O and native Linux AIO.
155@item format=@var{format}
156Specify which disk @var{format} will be used rather than detecting
157the format.  Can be used to specifiy format=raw to avoid interpreting
158an untrusted format header.
159@item serial=@var{serial}
160This option specifies the serial number to assign to the device.
161@item addr=@var{addr}
162Specify the controller's PCI address (if=virtio only).
163@item boot=@var{boot}
164@var{boot} is "on" or "off" and allows for booting from non-traditional interfaces, such as virtio.
165@end table
166
167By default, writethrough caching is used for all block device.  This means that
168the host page cache will be used to read and write data but write notification
169will be sent to the guest only when the data has been reported as written by
170the storage subsystem.
171
172Writeback caching will report data writes as completed as soon as the data is
173present in the host page cache.  This is safe as long as you trust your host.
174If your host crashes or loses power, then the guest may experience data
175corruption.
176
177The host page cache can be avoided entirely with @option{cache=none}.  This will
178attempt to do disk IO directly to the guests memory.  QEMU may still perform
179an internal copy of the data.
180
181Some block drivers perform badly with @option{cache=writethrough}, most notably,
182qcow2.  If performance is more important than correctness,
183@option{cache=writeback} should be used with qcow2.
184
185In case you don't care about data integrity over host failures, use
186cache=unsafe. This option tells qemu that it never needs to write any data
187to the disk but can instead keeps things in cache. If anything goes wrong,
188like your host losing power, the disk storage getting disconnected accidently,
189etc. you're image will most probably be rendered unusable.   When using
190the @option{-snapshot} option, unsafe caching is always used.
191
192Instead of @option{-cdrom} you can use:
193@example
194qemu -drive file=file,index=2,media=cdrom
195@end example
196
197Instead of @option{-hda}, @option{-hdb}, @option{-hdc}, @option{-hdd}, you can
198use:
199@example
200qemu -drive file=file,index=0,media=disk
201qemu -drive file=file,index=1,media=disk
202qemu -drive file=file,index=2,media=disk
203qemu -drive file=file,index=3,media=disk
204@end example
205
206You can connect a CDROM to the slave of ide0:
207@example
208qemu -drive file=file,if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom
209@end example
210
211If you don't specify the "file=" argument, you define an empty drive:
212@example
213qemu -drive if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom
214@end example
215
216You can connect a SCSI disk with unit ID 6 on the bus #0:
217@example
218qemu -drive file=file,if=scsi,bus=0,unit=6
219@end example
220
221Instead of @option{-fda}, @option{-fdb}, you can use:
222@example
223qemu -drive file=file,index=0,if=floppy
224qemu -drive file=file,index=1,if=floppy
225@end example
226
227By default, @var{interface} is "ide" and @var{index} is automatically
228incremented:
229@example
230qemu -drive file=a -drive file=b"
231@end example
232is interpreted like:
233@example
234qemu -hda a -hdb b
235@end example
236ETEXI
237
238DEF("set", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_set,
239    "-set group.id.arg=value\n"
240    "                set <arg> parameter for item <id> of type <group>\n"
241    "                i.e. -set drive.$id.file=/path/to/image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
242STEXI
243@item -set
244@findex -set
245TODO
246ETEXI
247
248DEF("global", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_global,
249    "-global driver.property=value\n"
250    "                set a global default for a driver property\n",
251    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
252STEXI
253@item -global
254@findex -global
255TODO
256ETEXI
257
258DEF("mtdblock", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_mtdblock,
259    "-mtdblock file  use 'file' as on-board Flash memory image\n",
260    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
261STEXI
262@item -mtdblock @var{file}
263@findex -mtdblock
264Use @var{file} as on-board Flash memory image.
265ETEXI
266
267DEF("sd", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_sd,
268    "-sd file        use 'file' as SecureDigital card image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
269STEXI
270@item -sd @var{file}
271@findex -sd
272Use @var{file} as SecureDigital card image.
273ETEXI
274
275DEF("pflash", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_pflash,
276    "-pflash file    use 'file' as a parallel flash image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
277STEXI
278@item -pflash @var{file}
279@findex -pflash
280Use @var{file} as a parallel flash image.
281ETEXI
282
283DEF("boot", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_boot,
284    "-boot [order=drives][,once=drives][,menu=on|off]\n"
285    "                'drives': floppy (a), hard disk (c), CD-ROM (d), network (n)\n",
286    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
287STEXI
288@item -boot [order=@var{drives}][,once=@var{drives}][,menu=on|off]
289@findex -boot
290Specify boot order @var{drives} as a string of drive letters. Valid
291drive letters depend on the target achitecture. The x86 PC uses: a, b
292(floppy 1 and 2), c (first hard disk), d (first CD-ROM), n-p (Etherboot
293from network adapter 1-4), hard disk boot is the default. To apply a
294particular boot order only on the first startup, specify it via
295@option{once}.
296
297Interactive boot menus/prompts can be enabled via @option{menu=on} as far
298as firmware/BIOS supports them. The default is non-interactive boot.
299
300@example
301# try to boot from network first, then from hard disk
302qemu -boot order=nc
303# boot from CD-ROM first, switch back to default order after reboot
304qemu -boot once=d
305@end example
306
307Note: The legacy format '-boot @var{drives}' is still supported but its
308use is discouraged as it may be removed from future versions.
309ETEXI
310
311DEF("snapshot", 0, QEMU_OPTION_snapshot,
312    "-snapshot       write to temporary files instead of disk image files\n",
313    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
314STEXI
315@item -snapshot
316@findex -snapshot
317Write to temporary files instead of disk image files. In this case,
318the raw disk image you use is not written back. You can however force
319the write back by pressing @key{C-a s} (@pxref{disk_images}).
320ETEXI
321
322DEF("m", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_m,
323    "-m megs         set virtual RAM size to megs MB [default="
324    stringify(DEFAULT_RAM_SIZE) "]\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
325STEXI
326@item -m @var{megs}
327@findex -m
328Set virtual RAM size to @var{megs} megabytes. Default is 128 MiB.  Optionally,
329a suffix of ``M'' or ``G'' can be used to signify a value in megabytes or
330gigabytes respectively.
331ETEXI
332
333DEF("mem-path", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_mempath,
334    "-mem-path FILE  provide backing storage for guest RAM\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
335STEXI
336@item -mem-path @var{path}
337Allocate guest RAM from a temporarily created file in @var{path}.
338ETEXI
339
340#ifdef MAP_POPULATE
341DEF("mem-prealloc", 0, QEMU_OPTION_mem_prealloc,
342    "-mem-prealloc   preallocate guest memory (use with -mem-path)\n",
343    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
344STEXI
345@item -mem-prealloc
346Preallocate memory when using -mem-path.
347ETEXI
348#endif
349
350DEF("k", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_k,
351    "-k language     use keyboard layout (for example 'fr' for French)\n",
352    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
353STEXI
354@item -k @var{language}
355@findex -k
356Use keyboard layout @var{language} (for example @code{fr} for
357French). This option is only needed where it is not easy to get raw PC
358keycodes (e.g. on Macs, with some X11 servers or with a VNC
359display). You don't normally need to use it on PC/Linux or PC/Windows
360hosts.
361
362The available layouts are:
363@example
364ar  de-ch  es  fo     fr-ca  hu  ja  mk     no  pt-br  sv
365da  en-gb  et  fr     fr-ch  is  lt  nl     pl  ru     th
366de  en-us  fi  fr-be  hr     it  lv  nl-be  pt  sl     tr
367@end example
368
369The default is @code{en-us}.
370ETEXI
371
372
373DEF("audio-help", 0, QEMU_OPTION_audio_help,
374    "-audio-help     print list of audio drivers and their options\n",
375    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
376STEXI
377@item -audio-help
378@findex -audio-help
379Will show the audio subsystem help: list of drivers, tunable
380parameters.
381ETEXI
382
383DEF("soundhw", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_soundhw,
384    "-soundhw c1,... enable audio support\n"
385    "                and only specified sound cards (comma separated list)\n"
386    "                use -soundhw ? to get the list of supported cards\n"
387    "                use -soundhw all to enable all of them\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
388STEXI
389@item -soundhw @var{card1}[,@var{card2},...] or -soundhw all
390@findex -soundhw
391Enable audio and selected sound hardware. Use ? to print all
392available sound hardware.
393
394@example
395qemu -soundhw sb16,adlib disk.img
396qemu -soundhw es1370 disk.img
397qemu -soundhw ac97 disk.img
398qemu -soundhw hda disk.img
399qemu -soundhw all disk.img
400qemu -soundhw ?
401@end example
402
403Note that Linux's i810_audio OSS kernel (for AC97) module might
404require manually specifying clocking.
405
406@example
407modprobe i810_audio clocking=48000
408@end example
409ETEXI
410
411STEXI
412@end table
413ETEXI
414
415DEF("usb", 0, QEMU_OPTION_usb,
416    "-usb            enable the USB driver (will be the default soon)\n",
417    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
418STEXI
419USB options:
420@table @option
421
422@item -usb
423@findex -usb
424Enable the USB driver (will be the default soon)
425ETEXI
426
427DEF("usbdevice", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_usbdevice,
428    "-usbdevice name add the host or guest USB device 'name'\n",
429    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
430STEXI
431
432@item -usbdevice @var{devname}
433@findex -usbdevice
434Add the USB device @var{devname}. @xref{usb_devices}.
435
436@table @option
437
438@item mouse
439Virtual Mouse. This will override the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.
440
441@item tablet
442Pointer device that uses absolute coordinates (like a touchscreen). This
443means qemu is able to report the mouse position without having to grab the
444mouse. Also overrides the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.
445
446@item disk:[format=@var{format}]:@var{file}
447Mass storage device based on file. The optional @var{format} argument
448will be used rather than detecting the format. Can be used to specifiy
449@code{format=raw} to avoid interpreting an untrusted format header.
450
451@item host:@var{bus}.@var{addr}
452Pass through the host device identified by @var{bus}.@var{addr} (Linux only).
453
454@item host:@var{vendor_id}:@var{product_id}
455Pass through the host device identified by @var{vendor_id}:@var{product_id}
456(Linux only).
457
458@item serial:[vendorid=@var{vendor_id}][,productid=@var{product_id}]:@var{dev}
459Serial converter to host character device @var{dev}, see @code{-serial} for the
460available devices.
461
462@item braille
463Braille device.  This will use BrlAPI to display the braille output on a real
464or fake device.
465
466@item net:@var{options}
467Network adapter that supports CDC ethernet and RNDIS protocols.
468
469@end table
470ETEXI
471
472DEF("device", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_device,
473    "-device driver[,prop[=value][,...]]\n"
474    "                add device (based on driver)\n"
475    "                prop=value,... sets driver properties\n"
476    "                use -device ? to print all possible drivers\n"
477    "                use -device driver,? to print all possible properties\n",
478    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
479STEXI
480@item -device @var{driver}[,@var{prop}[=@var{value}][,...]]
481@findex -device
482Add device @var{driver}.  @var{prop}=@var{value} sets driver
483properties.  Valid properties depend on the driver.  To get help on
484possible drivers and properties, use @code{-device ?} and
485@code{-device @var{driver},?}.
486ETEXI
487
488DEFHEADING(File system options:)
489
490DEF("fsdev", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_fsdev,
491    "-fsdev local,id=id,path=path,security_model=[mapped|passthrough|none]\n",
492    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
493
494STEXI
495
496The general form of a File system device option is:
497@table @option
498
499@item -fsdev @var{fstype} ,id=@var{id} [,@var{options}]
500@findex -fsdev
501Fstype is one of:
502@option{local},
503The specific Fstype will determine the applicable options.
504
505Options to each backend are described below.
506
507@item -fsdev local ,id=@var{id} ,path=@var{path} ,security_model=@var{security_model}
508
509Create a file-system-"device" for local-filesystem.
510
511@option{local} is only available on Linux.
512
513@option{path} specifies the path to be exported. @option{path} is required.
514
515@option{security_model} specifies the security model to be followed.
516@option{security_model} is required.
517
518@end table
519ETEXI
520
521DEFHEADING(Virtual File system pass-through options:)
522
523DEF("virtfs", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_virtfs,
524    "-virtfs local,path=path,mount_tag=tag,security_model=[mapped|passthrough|none]\n",
525    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
526
527STEXI
528
529The general form of a Virtual File system pass-through option is:
530@table @option
531
532@item -virtfs @var{fstype} [,@var{options}]
533@findex -virtfs
534Fstype is one of:
535@option{local},
536The specific Fstype will determine the applicable options.
537
538Options to each backend are described below.
539
540@item -virtfs local ,path=@var{path} ,mount_tag=@var{mount_tag} ,security_model=@var{security_model}
541
542Create a Virtual file-system-pass through for local-filesystem.
543
544@option{local} is only available on Linux.
545
546@option{path} specifies the path to be exported. @option{path} is required.
547
548@option{security_model} specifies the security model to be followed.
549@option{security_model} is required.
550
551
552@option{mount_tag} specifies the tag with which the exported file is mounted.
553@option{mount_tag} is required.
554
555@end table
556ETEXI
557
558DEFHEADING()
559
560DEF("name", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_name,
561    "-name string1[,process=string2]\n"
562    "                set the name of the guest\n"
563    "                string1 sets the window title and string2 the process name (on Linux)\n",
564    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
565STEXI
566@item -name @var{name}
567@findex -name
568Sets the @var{name} of the guest.
569This name will be displayed in the SDL window caption.
570The @var{name} will also be used for the VNC server.
571Also optionally set the top visible process name in Linux.
572ETEXI
573
574DEF("uuid", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_uuid,
575    "-uuid %08x-%04x-%04x-%04x-%012x\n"
576    "                specify machine UUID\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
577STEXI
578@item -uuid @var{uuid}
579@findex -uuid
580Set system UUID.
581ETEXI
582
583STEXI
584@end table
585ETEXI
586
587DEFHEADING()
588
589DEFHEADING(Display options:)
590
591STEXI
592@table @option
593ETEXI
594
595DEF("nographic", 0, QEMU_OPTION_nographic,
596    "-nographic      disable graphical output and redirect serial I/Os to console\n",
597    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
598STEXI
599@item -nographic
600@findex -nographic
601Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output. With this option,
602you can totally disable graphical output so that QEMU is a simple
603command line application. The emulated serial port is redirected on
604the console. Therefore, you can still use QEMU to debug a Linux kernel
605with a serial console.
606ETEXI
607
608#ifdef CONFIG_CURSES
609DEF("curses", 0, QEMU_OPTION_curses,
610    "-curses         use a curses/ncurses interface instead of SDL\n",
611    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
612#endif
613STEXI
614@item -curses
615@findex curses
616Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output.  With this option,
617QEMU can display the VGA output when in text mode using a
618curses/ncurses interface.  Nothing is displayed in graphical mode.
619ETEXI
620
621#ifdef CONFIG_SDL
622DEF("no-frame", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_frame,
623    "-no-frame       open SDL window without a frame and window decorations\n",
624    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
625#endif
626STEXI
627@item -no-frame
628@findex -no-frame
629Do not use decorations for SDL windows and start them using the whole
630available screen space. This makes the using QEMU in a dedicated desktop
631workspace more convenient.
632ETEXI
633
634#ifdef CONFIG_SDL
635DEF("alt-grab", 0, QEMU_OPTION_alt_grab,
636    "-alt-grab       use Ctrl-Alt-Shift to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt)\n",
637    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
638#endif
639STEXI
640@item -alt-grab
641@findex -alt-grab
642Use Ctrl-Alt-Shift to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt).
643ETEXI
644
645#ifdef CONFIG_SDL
646DEF("ctrl-grab", 0, QEMU_OPTION_ctrl_grab,
647    "-ctrl-grab      use Right-Ctrl to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt)\n",
648    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
649#endif
650STEXI
651@item -ctrl-grab
652@findex -ctrl-grab
653Use Right-Ctrl to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt).
654ETEXI
655
656#ifdef CONFIG_SDL
657DEF("no-quit", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_quit,
658    "-no-quit        disable SDL window close capability\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
659#endif
660STEXI
661@item -no-quit
662@findex -no-quit
663Disable SDL window close capability.
664ETEXI
665
666#ifdef CONFIG_SDL
667DEF("sdl", 0, QEMU_OPTION_sdl,
668    "-sdl            enable SDL\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
669#endif
670STEXI
671@item -sdl
672@findex -sdl
673Enable SDL.
674ETEXI
675
676DEF("spice", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_spice,
677    "-spice <args>   enable spice\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
678STEXI
679@item -spice @var{option}[,@var{option}[,...]]
680@findex -spice
681Enable the spice remote desktop protocol. Valid options are
682
683@table @option
684
685@item port=<nr>
686Set the TCP port spice is listening on for plaintext channels.
687
688@item addr=<addr>
689Set the IP address spice is listening on.  Default is any address.
690
691@item ipv4
692@item ipv6
693Force using the specified IP version.
694
695@item password=<secret>
696Set the password you need to authenticate.
697
698@item disable-ticketing
699Allow client connects without authentication.
700
701@item tls-port=<nr>
702Set the TCP port spice is listening on for encrypted channels.
703
704@item x509-dir=<dir>
705Set the x509 file directory. Expects same filenames as -vnc $display,x509=$dir
706
707@item x509-key-file=<file>
708@item x509-key-password=<file>
709@item x509-cert-file=<file>
710@item x509-cacert-file=<file>
711@item x509-dh-key-file=<file>
712The x509 file names can also be configured individually.
713
714@item tls-ciphers=<list>
715Specify which ciphers to use.
716
717@item tls-channel=[main|display|inputs|record|playback|tunnel]
718@item plaintext-channel=[main|display|inputs|record|playback|tunnel]
719Force specific channel to be used with or without TLS encryption.  The
720options can be specified multiple times to configure multiple
721channels.  The special name "default" can be used to set the default
722mode.  For channels which are not explicitly forced into one mode the
723spice client is allowed to pick tls/plaintext as he pleases.
724
725@item image-compression=[auto_glz|auto_lz|quic|glz|lz|off]
726Configure image compression (lossless).
727Default is auto_glz.
728
729@item jpeg-wan-compression=[auto|never|always]
730@item zlib-glz-wan-compression=[auto|never|always]
731Configure wan image compression (lossy for slow links).
732Default is auto.
733
734@item streaming-video=[off|all|filter]
735Configure video stream detection.  Default is filter.
736
737@item agent-mouse=[on|off]
738Enable/disable passing mouse events via vdagent.  Default is on.
739
740@item playback-compression=[on|off]
741Enable/disable audio stream compression (using celt 0.5.1).  Default is on.
742
743@end table
744ETEXI
745
746DEF("portrait", 0, QEMU_OPTION_portrait,
747    "-portrait       rotate graphical output 90 deg left (only PXA LCD)\n",
748    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
749STEXI
750@item -portrait
751@findex -portrait
752Rotate graphical output 90 deg left (only PXA LCD).
753ETEXI
754
755DEF("vga", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_vga,
756    "-vga [std|cirrus|vmware|qxl|xenfb|none]\n"
757    "                select video card type\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
758STEXI
759@item -vga @var{type}
760@findex -vga
761Select type of VGA card to emulate. Valid values for @var{type} are
762@table @option
763@item cirrus
764Cirrus Logic GD5446 Video card. All Windows versions starting from
765Windows 95 should recognize and use this graphic card. For optimal
766performances, use 16 bit color depth in the guest and the host OS.
767(This one is the default)
768@item std
769Standard VGA card with Bochs VBE extensions.  If your guest OS
770supports the VESA 2.0 VBE extensions (e.g. Windows XP) and if you want
771to use high resolution modes (>= 1280x1024x16) then you should use
772this option.
773@item vmware
774VMWare SVGA-II compatible adapter. Use it if you have sufficiently
775recent XFree86/XOrg server or Windows guest with a driver for this
776card.
777@item qxl
778QXL paravirtual graphic card.  It is VGA compatible (including VESA
7792.0 VBE support).  Works best with qxl guest drivers installed though.
780Recommended choice when using the spice protocol.
781@item none
782Disable VGA card.
783@end table
784ETEXI
785
786DEF("full-screen", 0, QEMU_OPTION_full_screen,
787    "-full-screen    start in full screen\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
788STEXI
789@item -full-screen
790@findex -full-screen
791Start in full screen.
792ETEXI
793
794DEF("g", 1, QEMU_OPTION_g ,
795    "-g WxH[xDEPTH]  Set the initial graphical resolution and depth\n",
796    QEMU_ARCH_PPC | QEMU_ARCH_SPARC)
797STEXI
798@item -g @var{width}x@var{height}[x@var{depth}]
799@findex -g
800Set the initial graphical resolution and depth (PPC, SPARC only).
801ETEXI
802
803DEF("vnc", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_vnc ,
804    "-vnc display    start a VNC server on display\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
805STEXI
806@item -vnc @var{display}[,@var{option}[,@var{option}[,...]]]
807@findex -vnc
808Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output.  With this option,
809you can have QEMU listen on VNC display @var{display} and redirect the VGA
810display over the VNC session.  It is very useful to enable the usb
811tablet device when using this option (option @option{-usbdevice
812tablet}). When using the VNC display, you must use the @option{-k}
813parameter to set the keyboard layout if you are not using en-us. Valid
814syntax for the @var{display} is
815
816@table @option
817
818@item @var{host}:@var{d}
819
820TCP connections will only be allowed from @var{host} on display @var{d}.
821By convention the TCP port is 5900+@var{d}. Optionally, @var{host} can
822be omitted in which case the server will accept connections from any host.
823
824@item unix:@var{path}
825
826Connections will be allowed over UNIX domain sockets where @var{path} is the
827location of a unix socket to listen for connections on.
828
829@item none
830
831VNC is initialized but not started. The monitor @code{change} command
832can be used to later start the VNC server.
833
834@end table
835
836Following the @var{display} value there may be one or more @var{option} flags
837separated by commas. Valid options are
838
839@table @option
840
841@item reverse
842
843Connect to a listening VNC client via a ``reverse'' connection. The
844client is specified by the @var{display}. For reverse network
845connections (@var{host}:@var{d},@code{reverse}), the @var{d} argument
846is a TCP port number, not a display number.
847
848@item password
849
850Require that password based authentication is used for client connections.
851The password must be set separately using the @code{change} command in the
852@ref{pcsys_monitor}
853
854@item tls
855
856Require that client use TLS when communicating with the VNC server. This
857uses anonymous TLS credentials so is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle
858attack. It is recommended that this option be combined with either the
859@option{x509} or @option{x509verify} options.
860
861@item x509=@var{/path/to/certificate/dir}
862
863Valid if @option{tls} is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used
864for negotiating the TLS session. The server will send its x509 certificate
865to the client. It is recommended that a password be set on the VNC server
866to provide authentication of the client when this is used. The path following
867this option specifies where the x509 certificates are to be loaded from.
868See the @ref{vnc_security} section for details on generating certificates.
869
870@item x509verify=@var{/path/to/certificate/dir}
871
872Valid if @option{tls} is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used
873for negotiating the TLS session. The server will send its x509 certificate
874to the client, and request that the client send its own x509 certificate.
875The server will validate the client's certificate against the CA certificate,
876and reject clients when validation fails. If the certificate authority is
877trusted, this is a sufficient authentication mechanism. You may still wish
878to set a password on the VNC server as a second authentication layer. The
879path following this option specifies where the x509 certificates are to
880be loaded from. See the @ref{vnc_security} section for details on generating
881certificates.
882
883@item sasl
884
885Require that the client use SASL to authenticate with the VNC server.
886The exact choice of authentication method used is controlled from the
887system / user's SASL configuration file for the 'qemu' service. This
888is typically found in /etc/sasl2/qemu.conf. If running QEMU as an
889unprivileged user, an environment variable SASL_CONF_PATH can be used
890to make it search alternate locations for the service config.
891While some SASL auth methods can also provide data encryption (eg GSSAPI),
892it is recommended that SASL always be combined with the 'tls' and
893'x509' settings to enable use of SSL and server certificates. This
894ensures a data encryption preventing compromise of authentication
895credentials. See the @ref{vnc_security} section for details on using
896SASL authentication.
897
898@item acl
899
900Turn on access control lists for checking of the x509 client certificate
901and SASL party. For x509 certs, the ACL check is made against the
902certificate's distinguished name. This is something that looks like
903@code{C=GB,O=ACME,L=Boston,CN=bob}. For SASL party, the ACL check is
904made against the username, which depending on the SASL plugin, may
905include a realm component, eg @code{bob} or @code{bob@@EXAMPLE.COM}.
906When the @option{acl} flag is set, the initial access list will be
907empty, with a @code{deny} policy. Thus no one will be allowed to
908use the VNC server until the ACLs have been loaded. This can be
909achieved using the @code{acl} monitor command.
910
911@item lossy
912
913Enable lossy compression methods (gradient, JPEG, ...). If this
914option is set, VNC client may receive lossy framebuffer updates
915depending on its encoding settings. Enabling this option can save
916a lot of bandwidth at the expense of quality.
917
918@end table
919ETEXI
920
921STEXI
922@end table
923ETEXI
924
925DEFHEADING()
926
927DEFHEADING(i386 target only:)
928STEXI
929@table @option
930ETEXI
931
932DEF("win2k-hack", 0, QEMU_OPTION_win2k_hack,
933    "-win2k-hack     use it when installing Windows 2000 to avoid a disk full bug\n",
934    QEMU_ARCH_I386)
935STEXI
936@item -win2k-hack
937@findex -win2k-hack
938Use it when installing Windows 2000 to avoid a disk full bug. After
939Windows 2000 is installed, you no longer need this option (this option
940slows down the IDE transfers).
941ETEXI
942
943HXCOMM Deprecated by -rtc
944DEF("rtc-td-hack", 0, QEMU_OPTION_rtc_td_hack, "", QEMU_ARCH_I386)
945
946DEF("no-fd-bootchk", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_fd_bootchk,
947    "-no-fd-bootchk  disable boot signature checking for floppy disks\n",
948    QEMU_ARCH_I386)
949STEXI
950@item -no-fd-bootchk
951@findex -no-fd-bootchk
952Disable boot signature checking for floppy disks in Bochs BIOS. It may
953be needed to boot from old floppy disks.
954TODO: check reference to Bochs BIOS.
955ETEXI
956
957DEF("no-acpi", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_acpi,
958           "-no-acpi        disable ACPI\n", QEMU_ARCH_I386)
959STEXI
960@item -no-acpi
961@findex -no-acpi
962Disable ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) support. Use
963it if your guest OS complains about ACPI problems (PC target machine
964only).
965ETEXI
966
967DEF("no-hpet", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_hpet,
968    "-no-hpet        disable HPET\n", QEMU_ARCH_I386)
969STEXI
970@item -no-hpet
971@findex -no-hpet
972Disable HPET support.
973ETEXI
974
975DEF("balloon", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_balloon,
976    "-balloon none   disable balloon device\n"
977    "-balloon virtio[,addr=str]\n"
978    "                enable virtio balloon device (default)\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
979STEXI
980@item -balloon none
981@findex -balloon
982Disable balloon device.
983@item -balloon virtio[,addr=@var{addr}]
984Enable virtio balloon device (default), optionally with PCI address
985@var{addr}.
986ETEXI
987
988DEF("acpitable", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_acpitable,
989    "-acpitable [sig=str][,rev=n][,oem_id=str][,oem_table_id=str][,oem_rev=n][,asl_compiler_id=str][,asl_compiler_rev=n][,data=file1[:file2]...]\n"
990    "                ACPI table description\n", QEMU_ARCH_I386)
991STEXI
992@item -acpitable [sig=@var{str}][,rev=@var{n}][,oem_id=@var{str}][,oem_table_id=@var{str}][,oem_rev=@var{n}] [,asl_compiler_id=@var{str}][,asl_compiler_rev=@var{n}][,data=@var{file1}[:@var{file2}]...]
993@findex -acpitable
994Add ACPI table with specified header fields and context from specified files.
995ETEXI
996
997DEF("smbios", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_smbios,
998    "-smbios file=binary\n"
999    "                load SMBIOS entry from binary file\n"
1000    "-smbios type=0[,vendor=str][,version=str][,date=str][,release=%d.%d]\n"
1001    "                specify SMBIOS type 0 fields\n"
1002    "-smbios type=1[,manufacturer=str][,product=str][,version=str][,serial=str]\n"
1003    "              [,uuid=uuid][,sku=str][,family=str]\n"
1004    "                specify SMBIOS type 1 fields\n", QEMU_ARCH_I386)
1005STEXI
1006@item -smbios file=@var{binary}
1007@findex -smbios
1008Load SMBIOS entry from binary file.
1009
1010@item -smbios type=0[,vendor=@var{str}][,version=@var{str}][,date=@var{str}][,release=@var{%d.%d}]
1011@findex -smbios
1012Specify SMBIOS type 0 fields
1013
1014@item -smbios type=1[,manufacturer=@var{str}][,product=@var{str}] [,version=@var{str}][,serial=@var{str}][,uuid=@var{uuid}][,sku=@var{str}] [,family=@var{str}]
1015Specify SMBIOS type 1 fields
1016ETEXI
1017
1018DEFHEADING()
1019STEXI
1020@end table
1021ETEXI
1022
1023DEFHEADING(Network options:)
1024STEXI
1025@table @option
1026ETEXI
1027
1028HXCOMM Legacy slirp options (now moved to -net user):
1029#ifdef CONFIG_SLIRP
1030DEF("tftp", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_tftp, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1031DEF("bootp", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_bootp, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1032DEF("redir", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_redir, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1033#ifndef _WIN32
1034DEF("smb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_smb, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1035#endif
1036#endif
1037
1038DEF("net", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_net,
1039    "-net nic[,vlan=n][,macaddr=mac][,model=type][,name=str][,addr=str][,vectors=v]\n"
1040    "                create a new Network Interface Card and connect it to VLAN 'n'\n"
1041#ifdef CONFIG_SLIRP
1042    "-net user[,vlan=n][,name=str][,net=addr[/mask]][,host=addr][,restrict=y|n]\n"
1043    "         [,hostname=host][,dhcpstart=addr][,dns=addr][,tftp=dir][,bootfile=f]\n"
1044    "         [,hostfwd=rule][,guestfwd=rule]"
1045#ifndef _WIN32
1046                                             "[,smb=dir[,smbserver=addr]]\n"
1047#endif
1048    "                connect the user mode network stack to VLAN 'n', configure its\n"
1049    "                DHCP server and enabled optional services\n"
1050#endif
1051#ifdef _WIN32
1052    "-net tap[,vlan=n][,name=str],ifname=name\n"
1053    "                connect the host TAP network interface to VLAN 'n'\n"
1054#else
1055    "-net tap[,vlan=n][,name=str][,fd=h][,ifname=name][,script=file][,downscript=dfile][,sndbuf=nbytes][,vnet_hdr=on|off][,vhost=on|off][,vhostfd=h][,vhostforce=on|off]\n"
1056    "                connect the host TAP network interface to VLAN 'n' and use the\n"
1057    "                network scripts 'file' (default=" DEFAULT_NETWORK_SCRIPT ")\n"
1058    "                and 'dfile' (default=" DEFAULT_NETWORK_DOWN_SCRIPT ")\n"
1059    "                use '[down]script=no' to disable script execution\n"
1060    "                use 'fd=h' to connect to an already opened TAP interface\n"
1061    "                use 'sndbuf=nbytes' to limit the size of the send buffer (the\n"
1062    "                default is disabled 'sndbuf=0' to enable flow control set 'sndbuf=1048576')\n"
1063    "                use vnet_hdr=off to avoid enabling the IFF_VNET_HDR tap flag\n"
1064    "                use vnet_hdr=on to make the lack of IFF_VNET_HDR support an error condition\n"
1065    "                use vhost=on to enable experimental in kernel accelerator\n"
1066    "                    (only has effect for virtio guests which use MSIX)\n"
1067    "                use vhostforce=on to force vhost on for non-MSIX virtio guests\n"
1068    "                use 'vhostfd=h' to connect to an already opened vhost net device\n"
1069#endif
1070    "-net socket[,vlan=n][,name=str][,fd=h][,listen=[host]:port][,connect=host:port]\n"
1071    "                connect the vlan 'n' to another VLAN using a socket connection\n"
1072    "-net socket[,vlan=n][,name=str][,fd=h][,mcast=maddr:port[,localaddr=addr]]\n"
1073    "                connect the vlan 'n' to multicast maddr and port\n"
1074    "                use 'localaddr=addr' to specify the host address to send packets from\n"
1075#ifdef CONFIG_VDE
1076    "-net vde[,vlan=n][,name=str][,sock=socketpath][,port=n][,group=groupname][,mode=octalmode]\n"
1077    "                connect the vlan 'n' to port 'n' of a vde switch running\n"
1078    "                on host and listening for incoming connections on 'socketpath'.\n"
1079    "                Use group 'groupname' and mode 'octalmode' to change default\n"
1080    "                ownership and permissions for communication port.\n"
1081#endif
1082    "-net dump[,vlan=n][,file=f][,len=n]\n"
1083    "                dump traffic on vlan 'n' to file 'f' (max n bytes per packet)\n"
1084    "-net none       use it alone to have zero network devices. If no -net option\n"
1085    "                is provided, the default is '-net nic -net user'\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1086DEF("netdev", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_netdev,
1087    "-netdev ["
1088#ifdef CONFIG_SLIRP
1089    "user|"
1090#endif
1091    "tap|"
1092#ifdef CONFIG_VDE
1093    "vde|"
1094#endif
1095    "socket],id=str[,option][,option][,...]\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1096STEXI
1097@item -net nic[,vlan=@var{n}][,macaddr=@var{mac}][,model=@var{type}] [,name=@var{name}][,addr=@var{addr}][,vectors=@var{v}]
1098@findex -net
1099Create a new Network Interface Card and connect it to VLAN @var{n} (@var{n}
1100= 0 is the default). The NIC is an e1000 by default on the PC
1101target. Optionally, the MAC address can be changed to @var{mac}, the
1102device address set to @var{addr} (PCI cards only),
1103and a @var{name} can be assigned for use in monitor commands.
1104Optionally, for PCI cards, you can specify the number @var{v} of MSI-X vectors
1105that the card should have; this option currently only affects virtio cards; set
1106@var{v} = 0 to disable MSI-X. If no @option{-net} option is specified, a single
1107NIC is created.  Qemu can emulate several different models of network card.
1108Valid values for @var{type} are
1109@code{virtio}, @code{i82551}, @code{i82557b}, @code{i82559er},
1110@code{ne2k_pci}, @code{ne2k_isa}, @code{pcnet}, @code{rtl8139},
1111@code{e1000}, @code{smc91c111}, @code{lance} and @code{mcf_fec}.
1112Not all devices are supported on all targets.  Use -net nic,model=?
1113for a list of available devices for your target.
1114
1115@item -net user[,@var{option}][,@var{option}][,...]
1116Use the user mode network stack which requires no administrator
1117privilege to run. Valid options are:
1118
1119@table @option
1120@item vlan=@var{n}
1121Connect user mode stack to VLAN @var{n} (@var{n} = 0 is the default).
1122
1123@item name=@var{name}
1124Assign symbolic name for use in monitor commands.
1125
1126@item net=@var{addr}[/@var{mask}]
1127Set IP network address the guest will see. Optionally specify the netmask,
1128either in the form a.b.c.d or as number of valid top-most bits. Default is
112910.0.2.0/8.
1130
1131@item host=@var{addr}
1132Specify the guest-visible address of the host. Default is the 2nd IP in the
1133guest network, i.e. x.x.x.2.
1134
1135@item restrict=y|yes|n|no
1136If this options is enabled, the guest will be isolated, i.e. it will not be
1137able to contact the host and no guest IP packets will be routed over the host
1138to the outside. This option does not affect explicitly set forwarding rule.
1139
1140@item hostname=@var{name}
1141Specifies the client hostname reported by the builtin DHCP server.
1142
1143@item dhcpstart=@var{addr}
1144Specify the first of the 16 IPs the built-in DHCP server can assign. Default
1145is the 16th to 31st IP in the guest network, i.e. x.x.x.16 to x.x.x.31.
1146
1147@item dns=@var{addr}
1148Specify the guest-visible address of the virtual nameserver. The address must
1149be different from the host address. Default is the 3rd IP in the guest network,
1150i.e. x.x.x.3.
1151
1152@item tftp=@var{dir}
1153When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in TFTP
1154server. The files in @var{dir} will be exposed as the root of a TFTP server.
1155The TFTP client on the guest must be configured in binary mode (use the command
1156@code{bin} of the Unix TFTP client).
1157
1158@item bootfile=@var{file}
1159When using the user mode network stack, broadcast @var{file} as the BOOTP
1160filename. In conjunction with @option{tftp}, this can be used to network boot
1161a guest from a local directory.
1162
1163Example (using pxelinux):
1164@example
1165qemu -hda linux.img -boot n -net user,tftp=/path/to/tftp/files,bootfile=/pxelinux.0
1166@end example
1167
1168@item smb=@var{dir}[,smbserver=@var{addr}]
1169When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in SMB
1170server so that Windows OSes can access to the host files in @file{@var{dir}}
1171transparently. The IP address of the SMB server can be set to @var{addr}. By
1172default the 4th IP in the guest network is used, i.e. x.x.x.4.
1173
1174In the guest Windows OS, the line:
1175@example
117610.0.2.4 smbserver
1177@end example
1178must be added in the file @file{C:\WINDOWS\LMHOSTS} (for windows 9x/Me)
1179or @file{C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\ETC\LMHOSTS} (Windows NT/2000).
1180
1181Then @file{@var{dir}} can be accessed in @file{\\smbserver\qemu}.
1182
1183Note that a SAMBA server must be installed on the host OS in
1184@file{/usr/sbin/smbd}. QEMU was tested successfully with smbd versions from
1185Red Hat 9, Fedora Core 3 and OpenSUSE 11.x.
1186
1187@item hostfwd=[tcp|udp]:[@var{hostaddr}]:@var{hostport}-[@var{guestaddr}]:@var{guestport}
1188Redirect incoming TCP or UDP connections to the host port @var{hostport} to
1189the guest IP address @var{guestaddr} on guest port @var{guestport}. If
1190@var{guestaddr} is not specified, its value is x.x.x.15 (default first address
1191given by the built-in DHCP server). By specifying @var{hostaddr}, the rule can
1192be bound to a specific host interface. If no connection type is set, TCP is
1193used. This option can be given multiple times.
1194
1195For example, to redirect host X11 connection from screen 1 to guest
1196screen 0, use the following:
1197
1198@example
1199# on the host
1200qemu -net user,hostfwd=tcp:127.0.0.1:6001-:6000 [...]
1201# this host xterm should open in the guest X11 server
1202xterm -display :1
1203@end example
1204
1205To redirect telnet connections from host port 5555 to telnet port on
1206the guest, use the following:
1207
1208@example
1209# on the host
1210qemu -net user,hostfwd=tcp::5555-:23 [...]
1211telnet localhost 5555
1212@end example
1213
1214Then when you use on the host @code{telnet localhost 5555}, you
1215connect to the guest telnet server.
1216
1217@item guestfwd=[tcp]:@var{server}:@var{port}-@var{dev}
1218Forward guest TCP connections to the IP address @var{server} on port @var{port}
1219to the character device @var{dev}. This option can be given multiple times.
1220
1221@end table
1222
1223Note: Legacy stand-alone options -tftp, -bootp, -smb and -redir are still
1224processed and applied to -net user. Mixing them with the new configuration
1225syntax gives undefined results. Their use for new applications is discouraged
1226as they will be removed from future versions.
1227
1228@item -net tap[,vlan=@var{n}][,name=@var{name}][,fd=@var{h}][,ifname=@var{name}] [,script=@var{file}][,downscript=@var{dfile}]
1229Connect the host TAP network interface @var{name} to VLAN @var{n}, use
1230the network script @var{file} to configure it and the network script
1231@var{dfile} to deconfigure it. If @var{name} is not provided, the OS
1232automatically provides one. @option{fd}=@var{h} can be used to specify
1233the handle of an already opened host TAP interface. The default network
1234configure script is @file{/etc/qemu-ifup} and the default network
1235deconfigure script is @file{/etc/qemu-ifdown}. Use @option{script=no}
1236or @option{downscript=no} to disable script execution. Example:
1237
1238@example
1239qemu linux.img -net nic -net tap
1240@end example
1241
1242More complicated example (two NICs, each one connected to a TAP device)
1243@example
1244qemu linux.img -net nic,vlan=0 -net tap,vlan=0,ifname=tap0 \
1245               -net nic,vlan=1 -net tap,vlan=1,ifname=tap1
1246@end example
1247
1248@item -net socket[,vlan=@var{n}][,name=@var{name}][,fd=@var{h}] [,listen=[@var{host}]:@var{port}][,connect=@var{host}:@var{port}]
1249
1250Connect the VLAN @var{n} to a remote VLAN in another QEMU virtual
1251machine using a TCP socket connection. If @option{listen} is
1252specified, QEMU waits for incoming connections on @var{port}
1253(@var{host} is optional). @option{connect} is used to connect to
1254another QEMU instance using the @option{listen} option. @option{fd}=@var{h}
1255specifies an already opened TCP socket.
1256
1257Example:
1258@example
1259# launch a first QEMU instance
1260qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
1261               -net socket,listen=:1234
1262# connect the VLAN 0 of this instance to the VLAN 0
1263# of the first instance
1264qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
1265               -net socket,connect=127.0.0.1:1234
1266@end example
1267
1268@item -net socket[,vlan=@var{n}][,name=@var{name}][,fd=@var{h}][,mcast=@var{maddr}:@var{port}[,localaddr=@var{addr}]]
1269
1270Create a VLAN @var{n} shared with another QEMU virtual
1271machines using a UDP multicast socket, effectively making a bus for
1272every QEMU with same multicast address @var{maddr} and @var{port}.
1273NOTES:
1274@enumerate
1275@item
1276Several QEMU can be running on different hosts and share same bus (assuming
1277correct multicast setup for these hosts).
1278@item
1279mcast support is compatible with User Mode Linux (argument @option{eth@var{N}=mcast}), see
1280@url{http://user-mode-linux.sf.net}.
1281@item
1282Use @option{fd=h} to specify an already opened UDP multicast socket.
1283@end enumerate
1284
1285Example:
1286@example
1287# launch one QEMU instance
1288qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
1289               -net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
1290# launch another QEMU instance on same "bus"
1291qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
1292               -net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
1293# launch yet another QEMU instance on same "bus"
1294qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:58 \
1295               -net socket,mcast=230.0.0.1:1234
1296@end example
1297
1298Example (User Mode Linux compat.):
1299@example
1300# launch QEMU instance (note mcast address selected
1301# is UML's default)
1302qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
1303               -net socket,mcast=239.192.168.1:1102
1304# launch UML
1305/path/to/linux ubd0=/path/to/root_fs eth0=mcast
1306@end example
1307
1308Example (send packets from host's 1.2.3.4):
1309@example
1310qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
1311               -net socket,mcast=239.192.168.1:1102,localaddr=1.2.3.4
1312@end example
1313
1314@item -net vde[,vlan=@var{n}][,name=@var{name}][,sock=@var{socketpath}] [,port=@var{n}][,group=@var{groupname}][,mode=@var{octalmode}]
1315Connect VLAN @var{n} to PORT @var{n} of a vde switch running on host and
1316listening for incoming connections on @var{socketpath}. Use GROUP @var{groupname}
1317and MODE @var{octalmode} to change default ownership and permissions for
1318communication port. This option is available only if QEMU has been compiled
1319with vde support enabled.
1320
1321Example:
1322@example
1323# launch vde switch
1324vde_switch -F -sock /tmp/myswitch
1325# launch QEMU instance
1326qemu linux.img -net nic -net vde,sock=/tmp/myswitch
1327@end example
1328
1329@item -net dump[,vlan=@var{n}][,file=@var{file}][,len=@var{len}]
1330Dump network traffic on VLAN @var{n} to file @var{file} (@file{qemu-vlan0.pcap} by default).
1331At most @var{len} bytes (64k by default) per packet are stored. The file format is
1332libpcap, so it can be analyzed with tools such as tcpdump or Wireshark.
1333
1334@item -net none
1335Indicate that no network devices should be configured. It is used to
1336override the default configuration (@option{-net nic -net user}) which
1337is activated if no @option{-net} options are provided.
1338
1339@end table
1340ETEXI
1341
1342DEFHEADING()
1343
1344DEFHEADING(Character device options:)
1345
1346DEF("chardev", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_chardev,
1347    "-chardev null,id=id[,mux=on|off]\n"
1348    "-chardev socket,id=id[,host=host],port=host[,to=to][,ipv4][,ipv6][,nodelay]\n"
1349    "         [,server][,nowait][,telnet][,mux=on|off] (tcp)\n"
1350    "-chardev socket,id=id,path=path[,server][,nowait][,telnet],[mux=on|off] (unix)\n"
1351    "-chardev udp,id=id[,host=host],port=port[,localaddr=localaddr]\n"
1352    "         [,localport=localport][,ipv4][,ipv6][,mux=on|off]\n"
1353    "-chardev msmouse,id=id[,mux=on|off]\n"
1354    "-chardev vc,id=id[[,width=width][,height=height]][[,cols=cols][,rows=rows]]\n"
1355    "         [,mux=on|off]\n"
1356    "-chardev file,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off]\n"
1357    "-chardev pipe,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off]\n"
1358#ifdef _WIN32
1359    "-chardev console,id=id[,mux=on|off]\n"
1360    "-chardev serial,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off]\n"
1361#else
1362    "-chardev pty,id=id[,mux=on|off]\n"
1363    "-chardev stdio,id=id[,mux=on|off][,signal=on|off]\n"
1364#endif
1365#ifdef CONFIG_BRLAPI
1366    "-chardev braille,id=id[,mux=on|off]\n"
1367#endif
1368#if defined(__linux__) || defined(__sun__) || defined(__FreeBSD__) \
1369        || defined(__NetBSD__) || defined(__OpenBSD__) || defined(__DragonFly__)
1370    "-chardev tty,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off]\n"
1371#endif
1372#if defined(__linux__) || defined(__FreeBSD__) || defined(__DragonFly__)
1373    "-chardev parport,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off]\n"
1374#endif
1375#if defined(CONFIG_SPICE)
1376    "-chardev spicevmc,id=id,name=name[,debug=debug]\n"
1377#endif
1378    , QEMU_ARCH_ALL
1379)
1380
1381STEXI
1382
1383The general form of a character device option is:
1384@table @option
1385
1386@item -chardev @var{backend} ,id=@var{id} [,mux=on|off] [,@var{options}]
1387@findex -chardev
1388Backend is one of:
1389@option{null},
1390@option{socket},
1391@option{udp},
1392@option{msmouse},
1393@option{vc},
1394@option{file},
1395@option{pipe},
1396@option{console},
1397@option{serial},
1398@option{pty},
1399@option{stdio},
1400@option{braille},
1401@option{tty},
1402@option{parport},
1403@option{spicevmc}.
1404The specific backend will determine the applicable options.
1405
1406All devices must have an id, which can be any string up to 127 characters long.
1407It is used to uniquely identify this device in other command line directives.
1408
1409A character device may be used in multiplexing mode by multiple front-ends.
1410The key sequence of @key{Control-a} and @key{c} will rotate the input focus
1411between attached front-ends. Specify @option{mux=on} to enable this mode.
1412
1413Options to each backend are described below.
1414
1415@item -chardev null ,id=@var{id}
1416A void device. This device will not emit any data, and will drop any data it
1417receives. The null backend does not take any options.
1418
1419@item -chardev socket ,id=@var{id} [@var{TCP options} or @var{unix options}] [,server] [,nowait] [,telnet]
1420
1421Create a two-way stream socket, which can be either a TCP or a unix socket. A
1422unix socket will be created if @option{path} is specified. Behaviour is
1423undefined if TCP options are specified for a unix socket.
1424
1425@option{server} specifies that the socket shall be a listening socket.
1426
1427@option{nowait} specifies that QEMU should not block waiting for a client to
1428connect to a listening socket.
1429
1430@option{telnet} specifies that traffic on the socket should interpret telnet
1431escape sequences.
1432
1433TCP and unix socket options are given below:
1434
1435@table @option
1436
1437@item TCP options: port=@var{port} [,host=@var{host}] [,to=@var{to}] [,ipv4] [,ipv6] [,nodelay]
1438
1439@option{host} for a listening socket specifies the local address to be bound.
1440For a connecting socket species the remote host to connect to. @option{host} is
1441optional for listening sockets. If not specified it defaults to @code{0.0.0.0}.
1442
1443@option{port} for a listening socket specifies the local port to be bound. For a
1444connecting socket specifies the port on the remote host to connect to.
1445@option{port} can be given as either a port number or a service name.
1446@option{port} is required.
1447
1448@option{to} is only relevant to listening sockets. If it is specified, and
1449@option{port} cannot be bound, QEMU will attempt to bind to subsequent ports up
1450to and including @option{to} until it succeeds. @option{to} must be specified
1451as a port number.
1452
1453@option{ipv4} and @option{ipv6} specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be used.
1454If neither is specified the socket may use either protocol.
1455
1456@option{nodelay} disables the Nagle algorithm.
1457
1458@item unix options: path=@var{path}
1459
1460@option{path} specifies the local path of the unix socket. @option{path} is
1461required.
1462
1463@end table
1464
1465@item -chardev udp ,id=@var{id} [,host=@var{host}] ,port=@var{port} [,localaddr=@var{localaddr}] [,localport=@var{localport}] [,ipv4] [,ipv6]
1466
1467Sends all traffic from the guest to a remote host over UDP.
1468
1469@option{host} specifies the remote host to connect to. If not specified it
1470defaults to @code{localhost}.
1471
1472@option{port} specifies the port on the remote host to connect to. @option{port}
1473is required.
1474
1475@option{localaddr} specifies the local address to bind to. If not specified it
1476defaults to @code{0.0.0.0}.
1477
1478@option{localport} specifies the local port to bind to. If not specified any
1479available local port will be used.
1480
1481@option{ipv4} and @option{ipv6} specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be used.
1482If neither is specified the device may use either protocol.
1483
1484@item -chardev msmouse ,id=@var{id}
1485
1486Forward QEMU's emulated msmouse events to the guest. @option{msmouse} does not
1487take any options.
1488
1489@item -chardev vc ,id=@var{id} [[,width=@var{width}] [,height=@var{height}]] [[,cols=@var{cols}] [,rows=@var{rows}]]
1490
1491Connect to a QEMU text console. @option{vc} may optionally be given a specific
1492size.
1493
1494@option{width} and @option{height} specify the width and height respectively of
1495the console, in pixels.
1496
1497@option{cols} and @option{rows} specify that the console be sized to fit a text
1498console with the given dimensions.
1499
1500@item -chardev file ,id=@var{id} ,path=@var{path}
1501
1502Log all traffic received from the guest to a file.
1503
1504@option{path} specifies the path of the file to be opened. This file will be
1505created if it does not already exist, and overwritten if it does. @option{path}
1506is required.
1507
1508@item -chardev pipe ,id=@var{id} ,path=@var{path}
1509
1510Create a two-way connection to the guest. The behaviour differs slightly between
1511Windows hosts and other hosts:
1512
1513On Windows, a single duplex pipe will be created at
1514@file{\\.pipe\@option{path}}.
1515
1516On other hosts, 2 pipes will be created called @file{@option{path}.in} and
1517@file{@option{path}.out}. Data written to @file{@option{path}.in} will be
1518received by the guest. Data written by the guest can be read from
1519@file{@option{path}.out}. QEMU will not create these fifos, and requires them to
1520be present.
1521
1522@option{path} forms part of the pipe path as described above. @option{path} is
1523required.
1524
1525@item -chardev console ,id=@var{id}
1526
1527Send traffic from the guest to QEMU's standard output. @option{console} does not
1528take any options.
1529
1530@option{console} is only available on Windows hosts.
1531
1532@item -chardev serial ,id=@var{id} ,path=@option{path}
1533
1534Send traffic from the guest to a serial device on the host.
1535
1536@option{serial} is
1537only available on Windows hosts.
1538
1539@option{path} specifies the name of the serial device to open.
1540
1541@item -chardev pty ,id=@var{id}
1542
1543Create a new pseudo-terminal on the host and connect to it. @option{pty} does
1544not take any options.
1545
1546@option{pty} is not available on Windows hosts.
1547
1548@item -chardev stdio ,id=@var{id} [,signal=on|off]
1549Connect to standard input and standard output of the qemu process.
1550
1551@option{signal} controls if signals are enabled on the terminal, that includes
1552exiting QEMU with the key sequence @key{Control-c}. This option is enabled by
1553default, use @option{signal=off} to disable it.
1554
1555@option{stdio} is not available on Windows hosts.
1556
1557@item -chardev braille ,id=@var{id}
1558
1559Connect to a local BrlAPI server. @option{braille} does not take any options.
1560
1561@item -chardev tty ,id=@var{id} ,path=@var{path}
1562
1563Connect to a local tty device.
1564
1565@option{tty} is only available on Linux, Sun, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and
1566DragonFlyBSD hosts.
1567
1568@option{path} specifies the path to the tty. @option{path} is required.
1569
1570@item -chardev parport ,id=@var{id} ,path=@var{path}
1571
1572@option{parport} is only available on Linux, FreeBSD and DragonFlyBSD hosts.
1573
1574Connect to a local parallel port.
1575
1576@option{path} specifies the path to the parallel port device. @option{path} is
1577required.
1578
1579#if defined(CONFIG_SPICE)
1580@item -chardev spicevmc ,id=@var{id} ,debug=@var{debug}, name=@var{name}
1581
1582@option{debug} debug level for spicevmc
1583
1584@option{name} name of spice channel to connect to
1585
1586Connect to a spice virtual machine channel, such as vdiport.
1587#endif
1588
1589@end table
1590ETEXI
1591
1592DEFHEADING()
1593
1594DEFHEADING(Bluetooth(R) options:)
1595
1596DEF("bt", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_bt, \
1597    "-bt hci,null    dumb bluetooth HCI - doesn't respond to commands\n" \
1598    "-bt hci,host[:id]\n" \
1599    "                use host's HCI with the given name\n" \
1600    "-bt hci[,vlan=n]\n" \
1601    "                emulate a standard HCI in virtual scatternet 'n'\n" \
1602    "-bt vhci[,vlan=n]\n" \
1603    "                add host computer to virtual scatternet 'n' using VHCI\n" \
1604    "-bt device:dev[,vlan=n]\n" \
1605    "                emulate a bluetooth device 'dev' in scatternet 'n'\n",
1606    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1607STEXI
1608@table @option
1609
1610@item -bt hci[...]
1611@findex -bt
1612Defines the function of the corresponding Bluetooth HCI.  -bt options
1613are matched with the HCIs present in the chosen machine type.  For
1614example when emulating a machine with only one HCI built into it, only
1615the first @code{-bt hci[...]} option is valid and defines the HCI's
1616logic.  The Transport Layer is decided by the machine type.  Currently
1617the machines @code{n800} and @code{n810} have one HCI and all other
1618machines have none.
1619
1620@anchor{bt-hcis}
1621The following three types are recognized:
1622
1623@table @option
1624@item -bt hci,null
1625(default) The corresponding Bluetooth HCI assumes no internal logic
1626and will not respond to any HCI commands or emit events.
1627
1628@item -bt hci,host[:@var{id}]
1629(@code{bluez} only) The corresponding HCI passes commands / events
1630to / from the physical HCI identified by the name @var{id} (default:
1631@code{hci0}) on the computer running QEMU.  Only available on @code{bluez}
1632capable systems like Linux.
1633
1634@item -bt hci[,vlan=@var{n}]
1635Add a virtual, standard HCI that will participate in the Bluetooth
1636scatternet @var{n} (default @code{0}).  Similarly to @option{-net}
1637VLANs, devices inside a bluetooth network @var{n} can only communicate
1638with other devices in the same network (scatternet).
1639@end table
1640
1641@item -bt vhci[,vlan=@var{n}]
1642(Linux-host only) Create a HCI in scatternet @var{n} (default 0) attached
1643to the host bluetooth stack instead of to the emulated target.  This
1644allows the host and target machines to participate in a common scatternet
1645and communicate.  Requires the Linux @code{vhci} driver installed.  Can
1646be used as following:
1647
1648@example
1649qemu [...OPTIONS...] -bt hci,vlan=5 -bt vhci,vlan=5
1650@end example
1651
1652@item -bt device:@var{dev}[,vlan=@var{n}]
1653Emulate a bluetooth device @var{dev} and place it in network @var{n}
1654(default @code{0}).  QEMU can only emulate one type of bluetooth devices
1655currently:
1656
1657@table @option
1658@item keyboard
1659Virtual wireless keyboard implementing the HIDP bluetooth profile.
1660@end table
1661@end table
1662ETEXI
1663
1664DEFHEADING()
1665
1666DEFHEADING(Linux/Multiboot boot specific:)
1667STEXI
1668
1669When using these options, you can use a given Linux or Multiboot
1670kernel without installing it in the disk image. It can be useful
1671for easier testing of various kernels.
1672
1673@table @option
1674ETEXI
1675
1676DEF("kernel", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_kernel, \
1677    "-kernel bzImage use 'bzImage' as kernel image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1678STEXI
1679@item -kernel @var{bzImage}
1680@findex -kernel
1681Use @var{bzImage} as kernel image. The kernel can be either a Linux kernel
1682or in multiboot format.
1683ETEXI
1684
1685DEF("append", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_append, \
1686    "-append cmdline use 'cmdline' as kernel command line\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1687STEXI
1688@item -append @var{cmdline}
1689@findex -append
1690Use @var{cmdline} as kernel command line
1691ETEXI
1692
1693DEF("initrd", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_initrd, \
1694           "-initrd file    use 'file' as initial ram disk\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1695STEXI
1696@item -initrd @var{file}
1697@findex -initrd
1698Use @var{file} as initial ram disk.
1699
1700@item -initrd "@var{file1} arg=foo,@var{file2}"
1701
1702This syntax is only available with multiboot.
1703
1704Use @var{file1} and @var{file2} as modules and pass arg=foo as parameter to the
1705first module.
1706ETEXI
1707
1708STEXI
1709@end table
1710ETEXI
1711
1712DEFHEADING()
1713
1714DEFHEADING(Debug/Expert options:)
1715
1716STEXI
1717@table @option
1718ETEXI
1719
1720DEF("serial", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_serial, \
1721    "-serial dev     redirect the serial port to char device 'dev'\n",
1722    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1723STEXI
1724@item -serial @var{dev}
1725@findex -serial
1726Redirect the virtual serial port to host character device
1727@var{dev}. The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and
1728@code{stdio} in non graphical mode.
1729
1730This option can be used several times to simulate up to 4 serial
1731ports.
1732
1733Use @code{-serial none} to disable all serial ports.
1734
1735Available character devices are:
1736@table @option
1737@item vc[:@var{W}x@var{H}]
1738Virtual console. Optionally, a width and height can be given in pixel with
1739@example
1740vc:800x600
1741@end example
1742It is also possible to specify width or height in characters:
1743@example
1744vc:80Cx24C
1745@end example
1746@item pty
1747[Linux only] Pseudo TTY (a new PTY is automatically allocated)
1748@item none
1749No device is allocated.
1750@item null
1751void device
1752@item /dev/XXX
1753[Linux only] Use host tty, e.g. @file{/dev/ttyS0}. The host serial port
1754parameters are set according to the emulated ones.
1755@item /dev/parport@var{N}
1756[Linux only, parallel port only] Use host parallel port
1757@var{N}. Currently SPP and EPP parallel port features can be used.
1758@item file:@var{filename}
1759Write output to @var{filename}. No character can be read.
1760@item stdio
1761[Unix only] standard input/output
1762@item pipe:@var{filename}
1763name pipe @var{filename}
1764@item COM@var{n}
1765[Windows only] Use host serial port @var{n}
1766@item udp:[@var{remote_host}]:@var{remote_port}[@@[@var{src_ip}]:@var{src_port}]
1767This implements UDP Net Console.
1768When @var{remote_host} or @var{src_ip} are not specified
1769they default to @code{0.0.0.0}.
1770When not using a specified @var{src_port} a random port is automatically chosen.
1771
1772If you just want a simple readonly console you can use @code{netcat} or
1773@code{nc}, by starting qemu with: @code{-serial udp::4555} and nc as:
1774@code{nc -u -l -p 4555}. Any time qemu writes something to that port it
1775will appear in the netconsole session.
1776
1777If you plan to send characters back via netconsole or you want to stop
1778and start qemu a lot of times, you should have qemu use the same
1779source port each time by using something like @code{-serial
1780udp::4555@@:4556} to qemu. Another approach is to use a patched
1781version of netcat which can listen to a TCP port and send and receive
1782characters via udp.  If you have a patched version of netcat which
1783activates telnet remote echo and single char transfer, then you can
1784use the following options to step up a netcat redirector to allow
1785telnet on port 5555 to access the qemu port.
1786@table @code
1787@item Qemu Options:
1788-serial udp::4555@@:4556
1789@item netcat options:
1790-u -P 4555 -L 0.0.0.0:4556 -t -p 5555 -I -T
1791@item telnet options:
1792localhost 5555
1793@end table
1794
1795@item tcp:[@var{host}]:@var{port}[,@var{server}][,nowait][,nodelay]
1796The TCP Net Console has two modes of operation.  It can send the serial
1797I/O to a location or wait for a connection from a location.  By default
1798the TCP Net Console is sent to @var{host} at the @var{port}.  If you use
1799the @var{server} option QEMU will wait for a client socket application
1800to connect to the port before continuing, unless the @code{nowait}
1801option was specified.  The @code{nodelay} option disables the Nagle buffering
1802algorithm.  If @var{host} is omitted, 0.0.0.0 is assumed. Only
1803one TCP connection at a time is accepted. You can use @code{telnet} to
1804connect to the corresponding character device.
1805@table @code
1806@item Example to send tcp console to 192.168.0.2 port 4444
1807-serial tcp:192.168.0.2:4444
1808@item Example to listen and wait on port 4444 for connection
1809-serial tcp::4444,server
1810@item Example to not wait and listen on ip 192.168.0.100 port 4444
1811-serial tcp:192.168.0.100:4444,server,nowait
1812@end table
1813
1814@item telnet:@var{host}:@var{port}[,server][,nowait][,nodelay]
1815The telnet protocol is used instead of raw tcp sockets.  The options
1816work the same as if you had specified @code{-serial tcp}.  The
1817difference is that the port acts like a telnet server or client using
1818telnet option negotiation.  This will also allow you to send the
1819MAGIC_SYSRQ sequence if you use a telnet that supports sending the break
1820sequence.  Typically in unix telnet you do it with Control-] and then
1821type "send break" followed by pressing the enter key.
1822
1823@item unix:@var{path}[,server][,nowait]
1824A unix domain socket is used instead of a tcp socket.  The option works the
1825same as if you had specified @code{-serial tcp} except the unix domain socket
1826@var{path} is used for connections.
1827
1828@item mon:@var{dev_string}
1829This is a special option to allow the monitor to be multiplexed onto
1830another serial port.  The monitor is accessed with key sequence of
1831@key{Control-a} and then pressing @key{c}. See monitor access
1832@ref{pcsys_keys} in the -nographic section for more keys.
1833@var{dev_string} should be any one of the serial devices specified
1834above.  An example to multiplex the monitor onto a telnet server
1835listening on port 4444 would be:
1836@table @code
1837@item -serial mon:telnet::4444,server,nowait
1838@end table
1839
1840@item braille
1841Braille device.  This will use BrlAPI to display the braille output on a real
1842or fake device.
1843
1844@item msmouse
1845Three button serial mouse. Configure the guest to use Microsoft protocol.
1846@end table
1847ETEXI
1848
1849DEF("parallel", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_parallel, \
1850    "-parallel dev   redirect the parallel port to char device 'dev'\n",
1851    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1852STEXI
1853@item -parallel @var{dev}
1854@findex -parallel
1855Redirect the virtual parallel port to host device @var{dev} (same
1856devices as the serial port). On Linux hosts, @file{/dev/parportN} can
1857be used to use hardware devices connected on the corresponding host
1858parallel port.
1859
1860This option can be used several times to simulate up to 3 parallel
1861ports.
1862
1863Use @code{-parallel none} to disable all parallel ports.
1864ETEXI
1865
1866DEF("monitor", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_monitor, \
1867    "-monitor dev    redirect the monitor to char device 'dev'\n",
1868    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1869STEXI
1870@item -monitor @var{dev}
1871@findex -monitor
1872Redirect the monitor to host device @var{dev} (same devices as the
1873serial port).
1874The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and @code{stdio} in
1875non graphical mode.
1876ETEXI
1877DEF("qmp", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_qmp, \
1878    "-qmp dev        like -monitor but opens in 'control' mode\n",
1879    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1880STEXI
1881@item -qmp @var{dev}
1882@findex -qmp
1883Like -monitor but opens in 'control' mode.
1884ETEXI
1885
1886DEF("mon", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_mon, \
1887    "-mon chardev=[name][,mode=readline|control][,default]\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1888STEXI
1889@item -mon chardev=[name][,mode=readline|control][,default]
1890@findex -mon
1891Setup monitor on chardev @var{name}.
1892ETEXI
1893
1894DEF("debugcon", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_debugcon, \
1895    "-debugcon dev   redirect the debug console to char device 'dev'\n",
1896    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1897STEXI
1898@item -debugcon @var{dev}
1899@findex -debugcon
1900Redirect the debug console to host device @var{dev} (same devices as the
1901serial port).  The debug console is an I/O port which is typically port
19020xe9; writing to that I/O port sends output to this device.
1903The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and @code{stdio} in
1904non graphical mode.
1905ETEXI
1906
1907DEF("pidfile", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_pidfile, \
1908    "-pidfile file   write PID to 'file'\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1909STEXI
1910@item -pidfile @var{file}
1911@findex -pidfile
1912Store the QEMU process PID in @var{file}. It is useful if you launch QEMU
1913from a script.
1914ETEXI
1915
1916DEF("singlestep", 0, QEMU_OPTION_singlestep, \
1917    "-singlestep     always run in singlestep mode\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1918STEXI
1919@item -singlestep
1920@findex -singlestep
1921Run the emulation in single step mode.
1922ETEXI
1923
1924DEF("S", 0, QEMU_OPTION_S, \
1925    "-S              freeze CPU at startup (use 'c' to start execution)\n",
1926    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1927STEXI
1928@item -S
1929@findex -S
1930Do not start CPU at startup (you must type 'c' in the monitor).
1931ETEXI
1932
1933DEF("gdb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_gdb, \
1934    "-gdb dev        wait for gdb connection on 'dev'\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1935STEXI
1936@item -gdb @var{dev}
1937@findex -gdb
1938Wait for gdb connection on device @var{dev} (@pxref{gdb_usage}). Typical
1939connections will likely be TCP-based, but also UDP, pseudo TTY, or even
1940stdio are reasonable use case. The latter is allowing to start qemu from
1941within gdb and establish the connection via a pipe:
1942@example
1943(gdb) target remote | exec qemu -gdb stdio ...
1944@end example
1945ETEXI
1946
1947DEF("s", 0, QEMU_OPTION_s, \
1948    "-s              shorthand for -gdb tcp::" DEFAULT_GDBSTUB_PORT "\n",
1949    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1950STEXI
1951@item -s
1952@findex -s
1953Shorthand for -gdb tcp::1234, i.e. open a gdbserver on TCP port 1234
1954(@pxref{gdb_usage}).
1955ETEXI
1956
1957DEF("d", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_d, \
1958    "-d item1,...    output log to /tmp/qemu.log (use -d ? for a list of log items)\n",
1959    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1960STEXI
1961@item -d
1962@findex -d
1963Output log in /tmp/qemu.log
1964ETEXI
1965
1966DEF("hdachs", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hdachs, \
1967    "-hdachs c,h,s[,t]\n" \
1968    "                force hard disk 0 physical geometry and the optional BIOS\n" \
1969    "                translation (t=none or lba) (usually qemu can guess them)\n",
1970    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1971STEXI
1972@item -hdachs @var{c},@var{h},@var{s},[,@var{t}]
1973@findex -hdachs
1974Force hard disk 0 physical geometry (1 <= @var{c} <= 16383, 1 <=
1975@var{h} <= 16, 1 <= @var{s} <= 63) and optionally force the BIOS
1976translation mode (@var{t}=none, lba or auto). Usually QEMU can guess
1977all those parameters. This option is useful for old MS-DOS disk
1978images.
1979ETEXI
1980
1981DEF("L", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_L, \
1982    "-L path         set the directory for the BIOS, VGA BIOS and keymaps\n",
1983    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1984STEXI
1985@item -L  @var{path}
1986@findex -L
1987Set the directory for the BIOS, VGA BIOS and keymaps.
1988ETEXI
1989
1990DEF("bios", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_bios, \
1991    "-bios file      set the filename for the BIOS\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
1992STEXI
1993@item -bios @var{file}
1994@findex -bios
1995Set the filename for the BIOS.
1996ETEXI
1997
1998DEF("enable-kvm", 0, QEMU_OPTION_enable_kvm, \
1999    "-enable-kvm     enable KVM full virtualization support\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2000STEXI
2001@item -enable-kvm
2002@findex -enable-kvm
2003Enable KVM full virtualization support. This option is only available
2004if KVM support is enabled when compiling.
2005ETEXI
2006
2007DEF("xen-domid", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_xen_domid,
2008    "-xen-domid id   specify xen guest domain id\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2009DEF("xen-create", 0, QEMU_OPTION_xen_create,
2010    "-xen-create     create domain using xen hypercalls, bypassing xend\n"
2011    "                warning: should not be used when xend is in use\n",
2012    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2013DEF("xen-attach", 0, QEMU_OPTION_xen_attach,
2014    "-xen-attach     attach to existing xen domain\n"
2015    "                xend will use this when starting qemu\n",
2016    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2017STEXI
2018@item -xen-domid @var{id}
2019@findex -xen-domid
2020Specify xen guest domain @var{id} (XEN only).
2021@item -xen-create
2022@findex -xen-create
2023Create domain using xen hypercalls, bypassing xend.
2024Warning: should not be used when xend is in use (XEN only).
2025@item -xen-attach
2026@findex -xen-attach
2027Attach to existing xen domain.
2028xend will use this when starting qemu (XEN only).
2029ETEXI
2030
2031DEF("no-reboot", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_reboot, \
2032    "-no-reboot      exit instead of rebooting\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2033STEXI
2034@item -no-reboot
2035@findex -no-reboot
2036Exit instead of rebooting.
2037ETEXI
2038
2039DEF("no-shutdown", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_shutdown, \
2040    "-no-shutdown    stop before shutdown\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2041STEXI
2042@item -no-shutdown
2043@findex -no-shutdown
2044Don't exit QEMU on guest shutdown, but instead only stop the emulation.
2045This allows for instance switching to monitor to commit changes to the
2046disk image.
2047ETEXI
2048
2049DEF("loadvm", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_loadvm, \
2050    "-loadvm [tag|id]\n" \
2051    "                start right away with a saved state (loadvm in monitor)\n",
2052    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2053STEXI
2054@item -loadvm @var{file}
2055@findex -loadvm
2056Start right away with a saved state (@code{loadvm} in monitor)
2057ETEXI
2058
2059#ifndef _WIN32
2060DEF("daemonize", 0, QEMU_OPTION_daemonize, \
2061    "-daemonize      daemonize QEMU after initializing\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2062#endif
2063STEXI
2064@item -daemonize
2065@findex -daemonize
2066Daemonize the QEMU process after initialization.  QEMU will not detach from
2067standard IO until it is ready to receive connections on any of its devices.
2068This option is a useful way for external programs to launch QEMU without having
2069to cope with initialization race conditions.
2070ETEXI
2071
2072DEF("option-rom", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_option_rom, \
2073    "-option-rom rom load a file, rom, into the option ROM space\n",
2074    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2075STEXI
2076@item -option-rom @var{file}
2077@findex -option-rom
2078Load the contents of @var{file} as an option ROM.
2079This option is useful to load things like EtherBoot.
2080ETEXI
2081
2082DEF("clock", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_clock, \
2083    "-clock          force the use of the given methods for timer alarm.\n" \
2084    "                To see what timers are available use -clock ?\n",
2085    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2086STEXI
2087@item -clock @var{method}
2088@findex -clock
2089Force the use of the given methods for timer alarm. To see what timers
2090are available use -clock ?.
2091ETEXI
2092
2093HXCOMM Options deprecated by -rtc
2094DEF("localtime", 0, QEMU_OPTION_localtime, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2095DEF("startdate", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_startdate, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2096
2097DEF("rtc", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_rtc, \
2098    "-rtc [base=utc|localtime|date][,clock=host|vm][,driftfix=none|slew]\n" \
2099    "                set the RTC base and clock, enable drift fix for clock ticks (x86 only)\n",
2100    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2101
2102STEXI
2103
2104@item -rtc [base=utc|localtime|@var{date}][,clock=host|vm][,driftfix=none|slew]
2105@findex -rtc
2106Specify @option{base} as @code{utc} or @code{localtime} to let the RTC start at the current
2107UTC or local time, respectively. @code{localtime} is required for correct date in
2108MS-DOS or Windows. To start at a specific point in time, provide @var{date} in the
2109format @code{2006-06-17T16:01:21} or @code{2006-06-17}. The default base is UTC.
2110
2111By default the RTC is driven by the host system time. This allows to use the
2112RTC as accurate reference clock inside the guest, specifically if the host
2113time is smoothly following an accurate external reference clock, e.g. via NTP.
2114If you want to isolate the guest time from the host, even prevent it from
2115progressing during suspension, you can set @option{clock} to @code{vm} instead.
2116
2117Enable @option{driftfix} (i386 targets only) if you experience time drift problems,
2118specifically with Windows' ACPI HAL. This option will try to figure out how
2119many timer interrupts were not processed by the Windows guest and will
2120re-inject them.
2121ETEXI
2122
2123DEF("icount", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_icount, \
2124    "-icount [N|auto]\n" \
2125    "                enable virtual instruction counter with 2^N clock ticks per\n" \
2126    "                instruction\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2127STEXI
2128@item -icount [@var{N}|auto]
2129@findex -icount
2130Enable virtual instruction counter.  The virtual cpu will execute one
2131instruction every 2^@var{N} ns of virtual time.  If @code{auto} is specified
2132then the virtual cpu speed will be automatically adjusted to keep virtual
2133time within a few seconds of real time.
2134
2135Note that while this option can give deterministic behavior, it does not
2136provide cycle accurate emulation.  Modern CPUs contain superscalar out of
2137order cores with complex cache hierarchies.  The number of instructions
2138executed often has little or no correlation with actual performance.
2139ETEXI
2140
2141DEF("watchdog", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_watchdog, \
2142    "-watchdog i6300esb|ib700\n" \
2143    "                enable virtual hardware watchdog [default=none]\n",
2144    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2145STEXI
2146@item -watchdog @var{model}
2147@findex -watchdog
2148Create a virtual hardware watchdog device.  Once enabled (by a guest
2149action), the watchdog must be periodically polled by an agent inside
2150the guest or else the guest will be restarted.
2151
2152The @var{model} is the model of hardware watchdog to emulate.  Choices
2153for model are: @code{ib700} (iBASE 700) which is a very simple ISA
2154watchdog with a single timer, or @code{i6300esb} (Intel 6300ESB I/O
2155controller hub) which is a much more featureful PCI-based dual-timer
2156watchdog.  Choose a model for which your guest has drivers.
2157
2158Use @code{-watchdog ?} to list available hardware models.  Only one
2159watchdog can be enabled for a guest.
2160ETEXI
2161
2162DEF("watchdog-action", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_watchdog_action, \
2163    "-watchdog-action reset|shutdown|poweroff|pause|debug|none\n" \
2164    "                action when watchdog fires [default=reset]\n",
2165    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2166STEXI
2167@item -watchdog-action @var{action}
2168
2169The @var{action} controls what QEMU will do when the watchdog timer
2170expires.
2171The default is
2172@code{reset} (forcefully reset the guest).
2173Other possible actions are:
2174@code{shutdown} (attempt to gracefully shutdown the guest),
2175@code{poweroff} (forcefully poweroff the guest),
2176@code{pause} (pause the guest),
2177@code{debug} (print a debug message and continue), or
2178@code{none} (do nothing).
2179
2180Note that the @code{shutdown} action requires that the guest responds
2181to ACPI signals, which it may not be able to do in the sort of
2182situations where the watchdog would have expired, and thus
2183@code{-watchdog-action shutdown} is not recommended for production use.
2184
2185Examples:
2186
2187@table @code
2188@item -watchdog i6300esb -watchdog-action pause
2189@item -watchdog ib700
2190@end table
2191ETEXI
2192
2193DEF("echr", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_echr, \
2194    "-echr chr       set terminal escape character instead of ctrl-a\n",
2195    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2196STEXI
2197
2198@item -echr @var{numeric_ascii_value}
2199@findex -echr
2200Change the escape character used for switching to the monitor when using
2201monitor and serial sharing.  The default is @code{0x01} when using the
2202@code{-nographic} option.  @code{0x01} is equal to pressing
2203@code{Control-a}.  You can select a different character from the ascii
2204control keys where 1 through 26 map to Control-a through Control-z.  For
2205instance you could use the either of the following to change the escape
2206character to Control-t.
2207@table @code
2208@item -echr 0x14
2209@item -echr 20
2210@end table
2211ETEXI
2212
2213DEF("virtioconsole", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_virtiocon, \
2214    "-virtioconsole c\n" \
2215    "                set virtio console\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2216STEXI
2217@item -virtioconsole @var{c}
2218@findex -virtioconsole
2219Set virtio console.
2220
2221This option is maintained for backward compatibility.
2222
2223Please use @code{-device virtconsole} for the new way of invocation.
2224ETEXI
2225
2226DEF("show-cursor", 0, QEMU_OPTION_show_cursor, \
2227    "-show-cursor    show cursor\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2228STEXI
2229@item -show-cursor
2230@findex -show-cursor
2231Show cursor.
2232ETEXI
2233
2234DEF("tb-size", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_tb_size, \
2235    "-tb-size n      set TB size\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2236STEXI
2237@item -tb-size @var{n}
2238@findex -tb-size
2239Set TB size.
2240ETEXI
2241
2242DEF("incoming", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_incoming, \
2243    "-incoming p     prepare for incoming migration, listen on port p\n",
2244    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2245STEXI
2246@item -incoming @var{port}
2247@findex -incoming
2248Prepare for incoming migration, listen on @var{port}.
2249ETEXI
2250
2251DEF("nodefaults", 0, QEMU_OPTION_nodefaults, \
2252    "-nodefaults     don't create default devices\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2253STEXI
2254@item -nodefaults
2255@findex -nodefaults
2256Don't create default devices.
2257ETEXI
2258
2259#ifndef _WIN32
2260DEF("chroot", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_chroot, \
2261    "-chroot dir     chroot to dir just before starting the VM\n",
2262    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2263#endif
2264STEXI
2265@item -chroot @var{dir}
2266@findex -chroot
2267Immediately before starting guest execution, chroot to the specified
2268directory.  Especially useful in combination with -runas.
2269ETEXI
2270
2271#ifndef _WIN32
2272DEF("runas", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_runas, \
2273    "-runas user     change to user id user just before starting the VM\n",
2274    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2275#endif
2276STEXI
2277@item -runas @var{user}
2278@findex -runas
2279Immediately before starting guest execution, drop root privileges, switching
2280to the specified user.
2281ETEXI
2282
2283DEF("prom-env", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_prom_env,
2284    "-prom-env variable=value\n"
2285    "                set OpenBIOS nvram variables\n",
2286    QEMU_ARCH_PPC | QEMU_ARCH_SPARC)
2287STEXI
2288@item -prom-env @var{variable}=@var{value}
2289@findex -prom-env
2290Set OpenBIOS nvram @var{variable} to given @var{value} (PPC, SPARC only).
2291ETEXI
2292DEF("semihosting", 0, QEMU_OPTION_semihosting,
2293    "-semihosting    semihosting mode\n", QEMU_ARCH_ARM | QEMU_ARCH_M68K)
2294STEXI
2295@item -semihosting
2296@findex -semihosting
2297Semihosting mode (ARM, M68K only).
2298ETEXI
2299DEF("old-param", 0, QEMU_OPTION_old_param,
2300    "-old-param      old param mode\n", QEMU_ARCH_ARM)
2301STEXI
2302@item -old-param
2303@findex -old-param (ARM)
2304Old param mode (ARM only).
2305ETEXI
2306
2307DEF("readconfig", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_readconfig,
2308    "-readconfig <file>\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2309STEXI
2310@item -readconfig @var{file}
2311@findex -readconfig
2312Read device configuration from @var{file}.
2313ETEXI
2314DEF("writeconfig", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_writeconfig,
2315    "-writeconfig <file>\n"
2316    "                read/write config file\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2317STEXI
2318@item -writeconfig @var{file}
2319@findex -writeconfig
2320Write device configuration to @var{file}.
2321ETEXI
2322DEF("nodefconfig", 0, QEMU_OPTION_nodefconfig,
2323    "-nodefconfig\n"
2324    "                do not load default config files at startup\n",
2325    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2326STEXI
2327@item -nodefconfig
2328@findex -nodefconfig
2329Normally QEMU loads a configuration file from @var{sysconfdir}/qemu.conf and
2330@var{sysconfdir}/target-@var{ARCH}.conf on startup.  The @code{-nodefconfig}
2331option will prevent QEMU from loading these configuration files at startup.
2332ETEXI
2333#ifdef CONFIG_SIMPLE_TRACE
2334DEF("trace", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_trace,
2335    "-trace\n"
2336    "                Specify a trace file to log traces to\n",
2337    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2338STEXI
2339@item -trace
2340@findex -trace
2341Specify a trace file to log output traces to.
2342ETEXI
2343#endif
2344
2345DEF("no-kvm", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_kvm,
2346    "-no-kvm         disable KVM hardware virtualization\n",
2347    QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2348DEF("no-kvm-irqchip", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_kvm_irqchip,
2349    "-no-kvm-irqchip disable KVM kernel mode PIC/IOAPIC/LAPIC\n",
2350    QEMU_ARCH_I386)
2351DEF("no-kvm-pit", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_kvm_pit,
2352    "-no-kvm-pit     disable KVM kernel mode PIT\n",
2353    QEMU_ARCH_I386)
2354DEF("no-kvm-pit-reinjection", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_kvm_pit_reinjection,
2355    "-no-kvm-pit-reinjection\n"
2356    "                disable KVM kernel mode PIT interrupt reinjection\n",
2357    QEMU_ARCH_I386)
2358DEF("enable-nesting", 0, QEMU_OPTION_enable_nesting,
2359    "-enable-nesting enable support for running a VM inside the VM (AMD only)\n", QEMU_ARCH_I386)
2360DEF("nvram", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_nvram,
2361    "-nvram FILE     provide ia64 nvram contents\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2362DEF("tdf", 0, QEMU_OPTION_tdf,
2363    "-tdf            enable guest time drift compensation\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
2364DEF("kvm-shadow-memory", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_kvm_shadow_memory,
2365    "-kvm-shadow-memory MEGABYTES\n"
2366    "                allocate MEGABYTES for kvm mmu shadowing\n",
2367    QEMU_ARCH_I386)
2368
2369HXCOMM This is the last statement. Insert new options before this line!
2370STEXI
2371@end table
2372ETEXI
2373